Education About Asia: Winter 2001


Supplemental Online Materials

 

For the past several years, Rice University Professor Richard Smith has been working on a book on the evolution and eventual "globalization" of the Yijing (Classic of Changes). During this time he has used the Chinese classic as a teaching tool in a wide variety of courses on Asian history and culture.

The following is a supplement to Professor Smith's article, "The Yijing (Classic of Changes) in Global Perspective: Some Pedagogical Reflections," which appears in the  Fall 2003 issue of Education About Asia (Volume 8, Number 2). If you would like to subscribe to Education About Asia, please see the subscription pages.

 

CONTENTS

I. Some Western-Language Works on the Yijing, Topically Organized: An Online Guide for Students

II. The Fu Hexagram (24) of the Yijing (Classic of Changes): Some Translations of the Basic Text (PDF File)

III. The Sixty-Four Hexagrams: Some Translations of the "Hexagram Names" (Guaming) (PDF File)


 

  

Using the Fiction of the Indian Subcontinent in Social Science Classes


*Note that there are many different transliterations of Yijing, including I-ching, I Ching, I Ging, Yi King, Yih-King, Yi Jing, etc (see under "PRELIMINARY REMARKS" below). The closest English translation is Classic of Changes. The Yijing is also commonly known as the Book of Changes, Livre des mutations, Livre des changements, Das Buch der Wandlungen, etc. Another title of the work, reflecting its pre-imperial origins, is the Zhouyi, Chou-i, Djohi, etc. [The Zhou/Chou/Djoh Changes]. Often it is simply known as the Changes (Yi). When looking for references to the Yijing in book indexes and on the world-wide web, one must always consider the above-mentioned possibilities. "Changes" and "Book of Changes" (and their various equivalents in other languages) are probably the best places to start looking in any book index. Note also that you can "word search" this online bibliography.

CONTENTS

PRELIMINARY REMARKS

I. A Note on the Transliteration ("Romanization") of Chinese Names

II. Some Ideas for Research

TOPICALLY ORGANIZED BIBLIOGRAPHY

I. Yijing Bibliographies

II. Reference Works

III. Various Translations and Broad Scholarly Overviews of the Yijing

IV. The Evolution of the Yijing

V. The Cultural Significance of the Yijing in China

VI. The Transmission of the Yijing

VII. Comparative Studies of the Yijing

VIII. Miscellaneous Works on the Yijing

IX. Some Other Relevant Works

X. A Note on the Net


PRELIMINARY REMARKS

I. A Note on the Transliteration ("Romanization") of Chinese Names

In this article I have used the Chinese Pinyin (PY) system rather than the British Wade-Giles (WG) system, but students should be aware that many of the English-language books listed under "BIBLIOGRAPHY" below—particularly those published before the 1990's, and some published later as well—employ WG.

In the past decade or so, PY has become increasingly popular among China scholars, not only in English-speaking environments but nearly everywhere that Chinese words have to be transliterated. Words rendered in PY are pronounced more or less the way they appear to be to an English speaker, with a few noteworthy exceptions: q sounds like the ch in cheek; z sounds like the ds in buds (unless followed immediately by an h [i.e. zh] in which case the two letters together sound like the j in jump); x sounds like the sh in sheep; and c sounds like the ts in its (unless followed immediately by an "h," in which case the two letters together sound like the ch in cheap. Thus: qing sounds like "ching;" zu sounds like "dsoo;" zhou sounds like "joe," xing sounds like "shing;" can sounds like "tsawn;" and chu sounds like "chew."

The WG system has the following peculiarities. It distinguishes between certain "aspirated" consonant sounds (marked by an apostrophe) and the same consonant sounds when pronounced without expelling air. For instance, ch' sounds like a speaker of American-English might think it would, as do k', p', and t'. But ch without an apostrophe is pronounced like a j (as in jar). Similarly, k without an apostrophe sounds like the g in gun; p, like the b in boy; t, like the d in dunce; and ts or tz, like the ds in buds. The letters ih at the end of a word indicate a sound something like "ur" (as in "sure") and the letter j has an "r" sound (as in "rough"). Thus: chang sounds like "jong;" kung sounds like "goong;" pang sounds like "bong;" and tse sounds like "dzuh." Shih sounds like "shur," and jih sounds (rather) like "urh" with a vague "r" sound at the beginning.

Here, in PY and then in WG, are some names for major dynasties, people and terms that are often encountered in works dealing with the Changes:

DYNASTIES (in chronological order)
Pinyin System Wade-Giles
Shang (c. 1800–1100 B.C.E.) Shang
Zhou (c. 1100–256 B.C.E.) Chou
Qin (221–206 B.C.E.) Ch'in
Han (206 B.C.E.–222 C.E.) Han
Sui (589–618) Sui
Tang (618–907) T'ang
Song (960–1279) Sung
Yuan (1279–1368) Yuan
Ming (1368–1644) Ming
Qing (1644–1912) Ch'ing
 
PEOPLE (in alphabetical order)
Pinyin System Wade-Giles
Cheng Yi Ch'eng I
Fu Xi Fu Hsi
Jing Fang Ching Fang
Kong Fuzi [Confucius] K'ung Fu-tzu
Lai Zhide Lai Chih-te
Laozi Lao-tzu
Mao Qiling Mao Ch'i-ling
Meng Xi Meng Hsi
Ouyang Xiu Ou-yang Hsiu
Shao Yong Shao Yung
Sima Qian Ssu-ma Ch'ien
Wang Bi Wang Pi
Wenwang [King Wen] Wen-wang
Wu-wang [King Wu] Wu-wang
Zheng Xuan Cheng Hsuan
Zhou Dunyi Chou Tun-i
Zhougong [Duke of Zhou] Chou-kung
Zhu Xi Chu Hsi
 
TERMS (in alphabetical order)
Pinyin System Wade-Giles
bagua (eight trigrams) pa-kua
Daoism Taoism
dizhi ([12] earthly branches) ti-chih
gua (trigram/hexagram) kua
guaming (hexagram name) kua-ming
Taiji (Supreme Ultimate) T'ai-chi
tiangan ([ten] heavenly stems) t'ien-kan
tuan (judgment, "tag") t'uan
wuxing (five phases, agents, etc.) wu-hsing
xiu ([twenty-eight] lunar lodges) hsiu
yaoci (line statement) yao-tz'u
yin and yang yin and yang

 

II. Some Ideas for Research (I have abbreviated "Topically Organized Bibliography" [below] as TOB)

NB: Your first recourse for information on almost any Yijing-related subject should be Nielsen (2003), cited in Section II of the TOB. Note also his excellent bibliography. The list of books in the TOB is by no means exhaustive (see initial note to Section I below); nor are my annotations, which appear occasionally in brackets ([ ]). My aim in organizing and annotating this bibliography has been to facilitate student research in the following general areas (among others):

THE HISTORY OF THE CHANGES [See esp. TOB, Section IV]

When, how and why did the Changes come into being? [For preliminary guidance, see esp. Gottshalk (1999), Kunst (1985), Liu and Lin (1995), Shaughnessy (1983), Rutt (1996), and Marshall (2001) in Section IV.A—full citations in Section III.] What do we know about its early evolution during the Zhou dynasty? Clearly there were different versions of the Changes that circulated in the Zhou period; how were they different and how were they similar? What are the implications of these differences and similarities?

What, if anything, did Confucius have to do with the Changes? You might use this question (or one like it) to explore the relationship between "myth" and "history" in China.

What light does the "basic text" of the Changes (i.e. the hexagram names, judgments and "line statements" of each of the sixty-four hexagrams of the "received version") shed on early Chinese history and culture?

What are the "Ten Wings" (shiyi; aka shih-i) of the Yijing and what do they have to do with the "basic text" of the Changes? [Most translations of the Yijing discuss the "Ten Wings;" for more focused studies, see Snyder (2001) and Swanson (1974) in TOB, Section IV.B]

Discuss the style and content of the Changes at the time that it was declared a "Confucian" classic in 136 B.C.E. Is "Confucian" an apt characterization of the work? Why or why not?

In what ways does the evolution of the Yijing in imperial times (221 B.C.E.–1912 C.E.) shed light on political, social, intellectual and cultural life in a given period (or periods) of Chinese history?

How have commentaries shaped Chinese attitudes toward the Changes, and how have Chinese attitudes shaped commentaries on the Changes? [This is a somewhat different version of the question posed directly above.]

INTERPRETING THE CHANGES [for clear explanations of all major techniques (and many relatively minor ones), see Nielsen (2003), in TOB, Section II]

What are some of the numerical and other correlational techniques for interpreting the basic text of the Yijing? Take into account not only the analysis of specific line, trigram and hexagram relationships but also the role of cosmic variables such as yin and yang, the five phases (wuxing), the ten heavenly stems (tiangan) and twelve earthly branches (dizhi), the 28 lunar lodges (xiu), etc. [Most translations of the Changes include discussions of such techniques, and the titles of other works (see esp. Section III and Section VIII below) often indicate a concern with such matters. For a start, see Richard Wilhelm, (1967), pp. 325–368, Lynn, (1994), pp. 19–46 and Wei (1997), pp. 97–113; also chapter 3 of R. J. Smith (1991)—all listed in Section III.]

What kind of book is the Changes? A divination manual? A book of philosophy? A book of history? An ancient dictionary? An encyclopedia? A scientific treatise? A mathematical model of the universe? All these ideas have been suggested by commentators past or present. What are your views?

COMPARATIVE ISSUES [See TOB, Section VII and Section IX, as well as the more specific citations below]

Compare different versions of the Changes—e.g. the Mawangdui version and the "received text" One kind of comparison might focus on the "basic text" of each document; another might focus on the commentaries attached to each. [See esp. Shaughnessy (1996) and Wang Dongliang (1995) in TOB, Section II]

Discuss the relationship between the "received text" of the Yijing and one or more derivative works, including the so-called "Changes Apocrypha." [See Neo (2000) and Nielsen (1995 and 1999); also specific works such as Yang Xiong's Taixuan jing (aka T'ai-hsuan ching; Nylan, 1994) in TOB, Section IV.B.]

How does the early evolution (or style, or content or commentarial tradition[s]) of the Changes compare with that of other "Chinese" classics, such as the Classic of Poetry (Shijing, the Classic of History (Shujing), etc.?

Discuss different understandings of the "basic text." [Compare different translations and also consult the works by Shaughnessy (1983) and Kunst (1985) in TOB, Section IV.A.]

Discuss different understandings of the "Ten Wings." [Look especially at Peterson (1987), Snyder (2001), Swanson (1974) and Karcher (2000) in TOB, Section IV.B.]

In what ways might the Changes be compared with other "classics," such as the Hebrew Torah, the Christian Bible, the Hindu Vedas or the Muslim Qu'ran (aka Koran)? [For a start, consult works such as Henderson (1991 and 1998) in TOB, Section IX and the books and articles listed in Section VII.] Are there other comparisons that might be more revealing? Why?

Compare the two major interpretive traditions of the Changes—the so-called school of "images and numbers" (xiangshu; aka hsiang-shu) and the school of "morality and principle" (yili; aka i-li). Are they mutually exclusive? [Most general works on the Yijing discuss these two "schools," but see in particular Goodman and Grafton (1990) in TOB, Section VI.F.1.]

Compare different interpretations of the Changes—either during the same period or over time.

Compare different ideological orientations toward the Changes (Confucian, Buddhist, and Daoist). [Most translations of the Yijing have an explicitly "Confucian" bias, but see, for example, Cleary (1986, 1987 and 1989) and Govinda (1981) in TOB, Section III; also White (1976) in ibid.]

THE CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE YIJING IN CHINA [See TOB, Section V]

From the standpoint of culture, virtually any China-related topic can be discussed in terms of the Changes. For some preliminary guidance, see R. J. Smith (1991, chapter 3) in TOB, Section III and R. J. Smith (1998) in TOB, Section VI.A. A look at the indexes of books such as those listed in TOB, Section VI, will yield a wealth of information on virtually every topic mentioned above, and a number of more specific ones as well. In going through these indexes, remember to consider every way the Yijing might be listed in an index—I-ching, I Ching, I Ging, Yi King, Yih-King, Yi Jing, Classic of Changes, Book of Changes, Changes, Livre des mutations, Livre des changements, Zhouyi, Chou-i, Djohi, etc.

An interesting paper might be written on the "counter-cultural" use of the Yijing by examining works on rebellion and revolution in Chinese history. The Taiping Rebellion (1851–1864) would be a fruitful starting point, not to mention the Eight Trigrams Uprising of 1813. [See, for example, Vincent Yu-chung Shih, The Taiping Ideology: Its Sources, Interpretations, and Influences (Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1967) and Susan Naquin, Millenarian Rebellion in China: The Eight Trigrams Uprising of 1813 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976).]

Since 1978, after several decades of neglect and outright condemnation, the Yijing has made a dramatic comeback in contemporary China. The 1980s witnessed a phenomenon known in the Chinese press as Yijing re ("Yijing Fever"). Bookstores and bookstalls in the PRC now carry a wide variety of both vernacular translations and popular studies of the classic, and there are even comic book versions of it. Yijing study groups have sprung up in every city, and public lectures on the Changes are now more or less common fare. How do we account for the recrudescence of the Yijing in places where it was previous suppressed? For some preliminary guidance, see R. J. Smith (1998), Liu (1993), and Tang (1987) in TOB, Section III.

ISSUES RELATED TO TEXTUAL TRANSMISSION AND TRANSLATION [See TOB, Section V]

How and why did the Changes move from China to other parts of East Asia? To the West? To the world? For some preliminary guidance, see R. J. Smith (1998) in TOB, Section III and R. J. Smith (2002) in TOB, Section VI.A.

What happened to the Yijing in the process of transmission to other parts of the world? In addition to the articles cited directly above, see the works cited in TOB, Section VI and Section VII. The works of Benjamin Wai-ming Ng (see TOB, Section VI, subsections "B," "C," and "D") provide excellent models, but original work can still be done with secondary sources. Consider, for example, how the scope of the articles listed in TOB, Section VI.B can broadened significantly by the information contained in books such as Choi (1980), David Chung (2001), Edward Chung (1995), de Bary and Haboush, eds. (1985), Kalton, trans. (1988), Kalton, et al. (1994), Palais (1996), Ro (1989), and Yun (1990) listed in TOB, Section VI.B. For access to this information, simply consult the indexes of these books under the headings "Book of Changes" or "I-Ching."

A couple of specific ideas: Compare the reception of the Yijing in, say, Japan and Korea over a roughly comparable period of time, discussing, for example, the relationship between cultural borrowing and indigenous identity. For some guidance, consult the sources cited in TOB, Section VI.A–C. Another comparison might be between the way the Yi and one or more of the "sacred texts" from another tradition—say, Buddhism, Daoism, Islam, Hinduism, Judaism or Christianity travelled eastward or westward. See TOB, Section VI.F and Section VII as well as the works by authors such as Batchelor (1994), Baumann and Prebish (2002), Clark (2000), Clark, ed. (1995), Courtney (1997), Evans (2002), Liu (1995), Liu ed (1999), Mullins (1998), Saussy (2001), Zhang (1992 and 1999) and others listed in Section IX.

One particularly interesting example of the "globalization" of the Yijing is the eighteenth-century effort by Jesuit "Figurists" (including Joachim Bouvet, Phillipe Couplet, Joseph Prémare, etc.) to link the Changes to the Bible (and to other Western works, including the Kabbalah). How, exactly, did they attempt to do this? What light does their effort shed on the nature of early Sino-Western cultural interactions? For guidance, see the works by Collani, Fancourt, Javary, Lackner, Lundbeck, Rule, Rutt, Witek and others in TOB, Section VI.F.1

In what ways has the Yijing inspired philosophical and artistic creativity outside of China? Consider, for instance, not only the examples in TOB, Section VI.A–E but also the many artists, writers, composers, choreographers and other influential individuals in the modern West who have acknowledged an interest in, if not a profound debt to, the Changes, including Carl Jung, Aleister Crowley, Fritjof Capra, Merce Cunningham, Carolyn Carlson, John Cage, Udo Kasemets, Eric Morris, Allen Ginsberg, Bob Dylan, Octavio Paz, and Philip K. Dick. For some leads, see the works cited in TOB, Section VI.F.1–2.

What do you make of modern Western "translations" of the Yijing such as those of Eason (1994), MacClure (1997), Sadler (1996), Sterling (1995), etc.? See TOB, Section VIII.

What is your evaluation of Western books on the Changes such as those by McKenna and McKenna (1993), Pailoux (1976), and Yan (1991)? See TOB, Section VIII.


 

TOPICALLY ORGANIZED BIBLIOGRAPHY (TOB)

Contents:

I. Yijing Bibliographies

II. Reference Works

III. Various Translations and Broad Scholarly Overviews of the Yijing

IV. The Evolution of the Yijing

V. The Cultural Significance of the Yijing in China

VI. The Transmission of the Yijing

VII. Comparative Studies of the Yijing

VIII. Miscellaneous Works on the Yijing

IX. Some Other Relevant Works

X. A Note on the Net

 

I. Yijing Bibliographies [Naturally, a great many Asian-language and Western-language primary and secondary sources can be found in the bibliographies and/or notes of the works listed in subsequent sections (II–VII).]

Cheng, Chung-ying and Elton Johnson. "A Bibliography of the I Ching in Western Languages," Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 14 (1987), 134–151.

Hacker, Edward, Steve Moore and Lorraine Patsco, eds. I Ching: An Annotated Bibliography. London, New York, etc.: Taylor and Francis, 2002.

Wilhelm, Hellmut. The Book of Changes in the Western Tradition: A Selective Bibliography. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1976.


 

II. Reference Works

Eberhard, Wolfram. A Dictionary of Chinese Symbols: Hidden Symbols in Chinese Life and Thought. London: Routledge Kegan and Paul, 1988. [An extremely valuable reference work. Students should keep in mind, however, that the meanings of Chinese symbols have often changed over time. Thus, the symbols of the "original" basic text of the Changes may have had connotations that were significantly different than those that attached to them in later periods.]

Nielsen, Bent. A Companion to Yi jing Numerology and Cosmology: Chinese Studies of Images and Numbers from Han 202 B.C.E.–220 C.E.) to Song (960–1279 C.E.). London, New York, etc.: Routledge-Curzon, 2003. [This work contains an excellent bibliography, in addition to a great many alphabetically organized entries (in Pinyin transliteration) that provide essential information on people, texts, concepts, and interpretive schemes. As indicated above, an invaluable resource and the first place to look for almost any Yijing-related subject. Every college and university library should have at least two copies of this book.]

Wilkinson, Endymion. Chinese History: A Manual. Cambridge., Mass. and London: Harvard University Press [Harvard University Asia Center], 2000. Revised and enlarged. [A wonderful reference, organized into the following general categories: Basics (Language, Dictionaries, People, Geography, etc.), Pre-Qin Sources, Historical Genres, Other Primary Sources, and Primary Sources by Period. Although of maximum value to those who read Chinese and Japanese documents, this work has much to offer undergraduate students as well.]

Zhang, Dainian. Key Concepts in Chinese Philosophy. New Haven and Beijing: Yale University Press, 2002. Translated and edited by Edmund Ryden. [Organized according to the following categories: Metaphysics, Cosmology, Concepts Derived from Daoism, Concepts Derived from the Book of Changes, Concepts of Relation, Moral Philosophy, Psychology, Concepts of Intentionality, Theory of Knowledge, Philosophy of Language and Theory of Truth.]


 

III. Various Translations and Broad Scholarly Overviews of the Yijing [Additional works of this sort can be found in section VIII below. "Translations" of the Changes (using the term somewhat loosely, since some renderings are not based on any Chinese text) are marked with asterisks (*) in both of these sections. Two asterisks (**) indicate translations that have, in my view, the greatest scholarly value for one reason or another. The two most widely-used scholarly translations in English are Wilhelm (1967) and Lynn (1994). Among the best general introductions to the Changes, in addition to Wilhelm and Lynn, are: Balkin (2002); Nylan (2001), Chapter 5; Rutt (1996); Shaughnessy (1993), Kidder Smith (1993), R. J. Smith (1991), Chapter 3 and Wei Tat (1977).]

Adler, Joseph, trans. Introduction to the Study of the Classic of Change (I-hsüeh ch'i-meng). New York: Global Scholarly Publications, 2002. [Focused on Zhu Xi's famous Song dynasty work]

*Balkin, Jack M. The Laws of Change: I Ching and the Philosophy of Life. New York: Schocken Books, 2002. [Not scholarly but basically accurate and informative]

*Blofeld, John, trans. I Ching: The Book of Change. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1968. [Scholarly, but a bit "loose" and somewhat outdated]

*Cleary, Thomas, trans. I Ching Mandalas: A Program of Study for The Book of Changes. Boston and Shaftsbury: Shambala, 1989. [Buddhist and Daoist orientation]

*Cleary, Thomas, trans. The Buddhist I Ching. Boston and London: Shambala Press, 1987. [Buddhist orientation; translation of a Ming dynasty version of the Changes]

*Cleary, Thomas, trans. The Taoist I Ching. Boston and London: Shambala Press, 1986. [Daoist orientation; translation of a Qing dynasty version of the Changes]

**Gottshalk, Richard, trans. Divination, Order and the Zhouyi. Lanham Maryland: University Press of America, 1999. [Focuses on the early Changes]

*Govinda, Anagarika Brahmacari. The Inner Structure of the I Ching, the Book of Transformations. Tokyo and New York: Weatherhill, 1981. [Buddhist orientation]

**Groupe de travail du Centre Djohi. Le Yi King mot à mot. Paris: Editions Albin Michel, 1994. [Scholarly, with a focus on the early Changes]

*de Harlez, Charles. Le livre des mutations. Texte primitif traduit du Chinois. Paris: Editions Denoel, 1959. Annotated by Raymond de Becker. [An early translation; useful for tracing the travels of the Changes westward]

Hon Tze-ki. "Being and Non-Being: A Comparison of the Yijing Commentaries of Wang Bi, Kong Yingda, Hu Yuan and Zhang Zai." Excursions in Sinology (2002), 195–231. [An excellent comparative study]

Hon, Tze-ki. "Teaching the Book of Changes." Education About Asia, 2.2 (Fall 1997), 26–31. [An excellent example of how the Changes can be used in the classroom]

Hon, Tze-Ki. "Northern Song 'Yijing' Exegesis and the Formation of Neo-Confucianism." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1992. Available from UMI Dissertation Services/ProQuest.[An illuminating comparison of several different Northern Song approaches to the Changes; currently being revised for publication by the State University Press of New York]

Huang, Alfred. The Numerology of the I Ching. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions, 2000. [Uneven]

*Huang, Alfred, trans. The Complete I Ching. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions, 1998. [Useful, but not too scholarly]

*Javary, Cyrille. Understanding the I Ching. Boston: Shambhala, 1997. Translated from the French by Kirk McElhearn. [Basically solid]

*Javary, Cyrille, et al. Les mutations du Yi King. Paris: Albin Nichel, 1994. [Basically solid]

**Javary, Cyrille and Pierre Faure, trans. Yi Jing: le Livre des changements. Editions Albin Michel, 2002. [Scholarly and up-to-date]

Julien, François. Figures de l'immanence: pour une lecture philosophique du Yi King, le classique du changement. Paris: Grasset, 1993. [Based primarily of the thought of the famous late Ming-early Qing savant, Wang Fuzhi]

*Karcher, Stephen, trans. I Ching. London: Sterling Publications, 2002. [Intelligent but not too scholarly]

Kim, Young-Oak. The Philosophy of Wang Fu-chih (1619–1692). Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1982. Available from UMI Dissertation Services/ProQuest. [Excellent; although rather narrowly focused, this study provides valuable background on the Changes]

**Kunst, Richard A., trans. The Original "Yijing:" A Text, Phonetic Transcription, Translation, and Indexes, with Sample Glosses. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1985. [Excellent analysis of the early Changes with a great deal of material on later Yijing scholarship]

**Legge, James, trans. The I Ching [originally rendered Yi King]. New York: Dover Publications, 1963 (reprint of 1899 edition). [A solid but at times obscure rendering, with a great deal of useful introductory information. Based on a late Qing understanding of Song dynasty interpretations of the Changes]

*Lim, Kim-Anh, trans. Practical Guide to the I Ching. Havelte, Holland: Binkey Kok Publications, 1998. Translated from the French by Valerie Cooper. [Basically sound.]

**Liu, Dajun and Lin Zhongjun, trans. The I Ching: Text and Annotated Translation. Jinan: Shandong Friendship Publishing House, 1995. Translated from the Chinese by Fu Youde and revised by Frank Lauran. [A "no frills" scholarly translation of the "basic text."]

Liu, Zheng. "The Dilemma Facing Contemporary Research in the I-ching." Chinese Studies in Philosophy, 24.4 (Summer, 1993).

**Lynn, Richard John, trans. The Classic of Changes (as interpreted by Wang Bi). New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. See also Edward Shaughnessy's review of this book in Early China, 22 (1997): 221–245. [For most purposes, the best single translation of the Changes available; scholarly, well annotated and accessible]

Marshall, S. J. The Mandate of Heaven: Hidden History in the I Ching. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. [A provocative "historical" understanding of the early Changes]

*Ni, Hua-Ching. The Book of Changes and the Unchanging Truth. Santa Monica: Seven Star Communications, 1994. Second edition. [Some value, but rather uneven]

Nylan, Michael. The Five "Confucian" Classics. New Haven and London. Yale University Press, 2001, esp. Chapter 5. [Excellent discussion of how and why the Changes became a classic]

Nylan, Michael, trans. The Elemental Changes: The Ancient Chinese Companion to the I Ching. Albany: State University Press of New York, 1994. [A good translation of the Taixuan jing, with an interesting and valuable introduction]

*Palmer, Martin and Jay Ramsay with Zhao Xiaomin, trans. I Ching: The Shamanic Oracle of Change. London and San Francisco: Thorsons, 1995. [Interesting but not very scholarly]

**Philastre, P. L. F., trans. Le Yi King ou, Livre des changements de la dynastie des Tsheou. Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1885–1893. Paris: Annales du Musée Guimet, 1881. Two vols. Republished by Maisonneuve (Paris 1982) and reissued in a single volume by Éditions Zulma (Paris, 1992; preface by François Jullien). [The French equivalent to Legge (above)]

*Ritsema, Rudolf and Stephen Karcher, trans. I Ching: The Classic Chinese Oracle of Change. Shaftsbury, Dorset, England, Rockport, Mass., Brisbane, Queensland, Australia: Element Books, 1994. [A Jungian understanding of the Changes]

**Rutt, Richard Rutt, trans. The Book of Changes (Zhouyi). Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 1996. [A translation of the early Changes with a great deal of useful introductory material]

Shaughnessy, Edward L. "Commentary, Philosophy, and Translation: Reading Wang Bi’s Commentary to the Yi jing in a New Way." Early China, 22 (1997): 221–245. [A broad-ranging review of Lynn (1994), below].

Shaughnessy, Edward. "I ching (Chou I)" in Michael Loewe, ed., Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, 1993. [An excellent introduction]

**Shaughnessy, Edward, trans. I Ching: The Classic of Changes. New York: Ballantine Books, 1996. [A translation based on the Mawangdui version of the Changes]

Shaughnessy, Edward L. "The Composition of the Zhouyi." Ph.D. dissertation: Stanford University, 1983. Available from UMI Dissertation Services/ProQuest. [An excellent study of the early Changes; precedes and complements Kunst (above)]

Shchutskii, Iulian. Researches on the I Ching. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979. Translated from the Russian by William MacDonald and Tsuyoshi Hasegawa. [An excellent, but somewhat dated review of Yijing scholarship, East and West]

Smith, Kidder. "The Difficulty of the Yijing." Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews, 15 (1993), 1–15. [A wonderful introductory article]

Smith, Richard J. "The Languages of the Yijing and the Representation of Reality," Oracle (Summer, 1998), 35–50. [An overview of the basic structure and function of the Changes]

Smith, Richard J. "The Place of the Yijing (Classic of Changes) in World Culture: Some Historical and Contemporary Perspectives," Journal of Chinese Philosophy" (Winter, 1998): 391–422. [A "global" perspective on the Changes]

Smith, Richard J. "The Book of Changes," in Ian McGreal, ed. Great Literature of the Eastern World. New York: Harper Collins, 1996. [A basic introduction to the Changes]

Smith, Richard J. Fortune-tellers and Philosophers: Divination in Traditional Chinese Society. Boulder, Colorado and Oxford, England: Westview Press, 1991, Chapter 3. [This chapter focuses on the political, social and cultural role of the Yijing in the Qing dynasty, but other parts of the book discuss its evolution]

Tang, Mingbang. "Recent Developments in Studies of the Book of Changes." Chinese Studies in Philosophy (Fall, 1987): 46–63. [A valuable article but somewhat dated]

**Wang, Dongliang, trans. Les signes et les mutations. Paris: L'asiathèque 1995. [A translation based on the Mawangdui version of the Changes; the French equivalent to Shaughnessy (1996, above)]

Wei, Tat. An Exposition of the I-Ching or Book of Changes. Hong Kong: Dai Nippon Printing Co., 1977. [A fascinating and valuable "personal" study of the Yijing based on traditional scholarship]

**Whincup, Greg, trans. Rediscovering the I Ching. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Co., 1986. [A scholarly treatment of the early Changes; cf. Rutt, Kunst and Shaughnessy (1983) above]

White, Douglass Alan. "Interpretations of the Central Concept of the I-Ching During the Han, Sung and Ming Dynasties." Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1976. Available from UMI Dissertation Services/ProQuest. [A very valuable study, with much information on Buddhist interpretations of the Yijing]

Wilhelm, Helmut and Richard Wilhelm. Understanding the I Ching: The Wilhelm Lectures on the Book of Changes. Princeton: Princeton Universitry Press, 1995. [Excellent treatment of various themes]

**Wilhelm, Richard, trans. The I Ching or Book of Changes. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967. Translated from the German by Cary F. Baynes. [A valuable translation with a great deal of extremely valuable introductory material, including a foreword by the famous psychologist, Carl Jung; should be read together with Lynn (above)]

*Wu, Jing-Nuan, trans. Yi Jing. Washington, D.C. The Taoist Center, 1991. [Of some interest, but rather careless in spots]


 

IV. The Evolution of the Yijing

A. Pre-imperial China (up to 221 B.C.E.)

Field, Stephen L. "Recovering the Lost Meanings of the Yijing Bagua." The Oracle: The Journal of Yijing Studies 2.9 (August 1999), 20–27.

Giele, Enno. "New Sources of Early Chinese History: An Introduction to the Reading of Inscriptions and Manuscripts." Early China, 23–24 (1998–1999), 247–336. Supplemented by Giele's "Database of Early Chinese Manuscripts (last updated 2/19/01)/ URL: http://humanities.uchicago.edu/depts/easian/earlychina/research_resources/databases/early_chinese_manuscripts/preface2.htm

See Gotshalk under Section III above.

See Groupe de travail under Section III above.

Harper, Donald. "Warring States Natural Philosophy and Occult Thought" in Michael Loewe and Edward Shaughnessy, eds. The Cambridge History of Ancient China. New York, Cambridge, and Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1999, 813–884.

See Kunst under Section III above.

See Liu and Lin under Section III above.

See Marshall under Section III above.

See Rutt under Section III above.

Shaughnessy, Edward. "Re-Reading The Gui Cang: An Alternative To Yi Jing Divination." [Forthcoming; I'm not sure of the publisher or the publication date.]

Shaughnessy, Edward L. "The Fuyang Zhou Yi and the Making of a Divination Manual." [Forthcoming; I'm not sure of the publisher or the publication date.]

Shaughnessy, Edward L. Before Confucius: Studies in the Creation of the Chinese Classics. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997. [Includes several excellent essays on the early Changes]

See Shaughnessy (1983) under Section III above.

Smith, Kidder. "Zhouyi Divination from Accounts in the Zuozhuan." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 49:2 (1989). [An extremely valuable analysis of Zhou dynasty divinations]

See Whincup under Section III above.

See Wu under Section III above.

B. Early Imperial China (from 221 B.C.E. to 1279)

See Adler (2002) under Section III above.

Adler, Joseph Alan. "Divination and Philosophy: Chu Hsi's Understanding of the I-Ching (China, Religion)." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1984. Available from UMI Dissertation Services/ProQuest. [Focused on the Song dynasty]

Arrault, Alain. Shao Yong (1012–1077): poète et cosmologue. Paris: Collège de France, 2002. [Focused on the Song dynasty]

Birdwhistell, Anne. Transition to Neo-Confucianism: Shao Yung on Knoweldge and Symbols of Reality. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989. [Focused on the Song dynasty]

Chang, Li-wen. "An Analysis of Chu Hsi's System of Thought of I," in Wing-tsit Chan, ed., Chu Hsi and Neo-Confucianism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986, 292–311. [Focused on the Song dynasty]

Chen, Chi-yun. "A Confucian Magnate's Idea of Political Violence: Hsun Shuang's Interpretation of the Book of Changes," T'oung Pao, series 2, 54 (1960), 73–115. [Focused on the Han dynasty]

Cook, Constance A. "Myth and Fragments of a Qin Yi Text: A Research Note and Translation." Journal of Chinese Religions, 26 (1998), 135–143. [Focused on the Qin dynasty]

De Woskin, Kenneth. Doctors, Diviners and Magicians of Ancient China. New York: Columbia University Press. 1983. [Focused on the Late Han and Six Dynasties period]

Fendos, Paul George, Jr. "Fei Chih's Place in the Development Of 'I-Ching' Studies." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1988. Available from UMI Dissertation Services/ProQuest. [Focused on the Han dynasty]

Field, Stephen L. "The Numerology of Nine Star Fengshui: A Hetu, Luoshu Resolution of the Mystery of Directional Auspice." Journal of Chinese Religions 27 (1999), 13–33. [Fairly broad and quite interesting]

Hon, Tze-ki. "Eremetism, Sagehood, and Public Service: The Zhouyi kouyi of Hu Yuan." Monumenta Serica 48 (2000), 67–92. [Focused on the Song dynasty]

Hon (1992) under Section III above. [Focused on the Song dynasty]

Karcher, Stephen, trans. Ta Chuan: The Great Treatise. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.

Kohn, Livia. Chen Tuan: Discussions and Translations. Three Pines Press (on-line publication: http://www.threepinespress.com), 2001. [Focused on the Song dynasty]

Lynn under Section III above.

Neo, Peng-fu. "A Study of the 'Auxiliary Texts of the 'Book of Changes' ['Yiwei']." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2000. Available from UMI Dissertation Services/ProQuest. [Focused on the Han dynasty "Apocrypha"]

Ngo, Van Xuyet. Divination, magie et politique dans la Chine ancienne. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1976. [Focused on the Han and Six Dynasties period]

Nielsen, Bent. "An Introduction to the Apocrypha of the Changes (Yi Wei) of the Han Dynasty." The Oracle: The Journal of Yijing Studies 2.8 (February 1999): 1–7. [Focused on the Han dynasty]

Nielsen, Bent. The Qian zuo du: A Late Han Dynasty (202 B.C.–A.D. 220) Study of the Book of Changes, Yi jing. Copenhagen: 1995. [Focused on the Han dynasty]

Peterson, Willard. ''Making Connections: 'Commentary on the Attached Verbalizations' of the Book of Change." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 42 (1982), 67–116. [Focused on the Han dynasty]

Phelan, Timothy S. "The Neo-Confucian Cosmology in Chu Hsi's 'I-Hsueh Ch'i-Meng' (A Primer for Studying the Changes." Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Washington, 1982. Available from UMI Dissertation Services/ProQuest. [Focused on the Song dynasty]

See Philastre under Section III above. [Based on Song dynasty commentaries]

See Shaughnessy, Edward L. (1996) under Section III above. [Focused on the Han dynasty Mawangdui version of the Changes]

See Shaughnessy (both of his forthcoming works) under Section IV.A above. [Focused on the late Zhou and early Han dynasties]

Smith, G. E. Kidder. "Cheng Yi's (1033–1107) Commentary on the 'Yijing.'" Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1979. Available from UMI Dissertation Services/ProQuest. [Focused on the Song dynasty]

Smith, Kidder, Peter Bol, Joseph Adler and Don Wyatt. Sung Dynasty Uses of the I Ching. Princeton: Princeton University Press. [Focused on the Song dynasty]

Snyder, Robert Charles. "The Spirit of Confucian Philosophy in the 'Dazhuan.'" Ph.D. dissertation, California Institute of Integral Studies, 2001. Available from UMI Dissertation Services/ProQuest. [Focused on the Han dynasty]

Swanson, Gerald. "The Great Treatise: Commentary Tradition to the Book of Changes." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 1974. Available from UMI Dissertation Services/ProQuest. [Focused on the Han dynasty]

See Wang Dongliang under Section III above. [Focused on the Han dynasty Mawangdui version of the Changes]

See Wilhelm (Richard) under Section III above. [Based on Song dynasty commentaries]

C. Late Imperial China (1279–1912)

Black, Alison (1989). Man and Nature in the Philosophical Thought of Wang Fu-chih. Seattle: University of Washington Press. [Focused on the Qing dynasty]

See Cleary (all three citations) under Section III above.

Henderson, John B. The Development and Decline of Chinese Cosmology. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984. Cf. Willard Peterson 's review of this book in the Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 46.2 (December, 1986): 657–674. [Focused mainly on the Ming and Qing dynasties]

See Julien under Section III above. [Based primarily on Wang Fuzhi's approach to the Yijing; cf. Black, above]

See Kim under Section III above. [Focused on the Qing dynasty]

Ng, On-cho. Cheng-Zhu Confucianism in the Early Qing: Li Guangdi (1642–1718) and Qing Learning. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001.

Schulz, Larry James. "Lai Chih-te (1525–1604) and the Phenomenology of the Classic of Change (I-Ching)." Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1982. Available from UMI Dissertation Services/ProQuest. [Focused on the Ming dynasty]

Smith, Richard J. "Divination in Ch'ing China," in Richard J. Smith and D.Y.Y. Kwok, eds. Cosmology, Ontology and Human Efficacy: Essays in Chinese Thought. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993. [Focused on the Qing dynasty]

Smith, Richard J. Fortune-tellers and Philosophers: Divination in Traditional Chinese Society. Boulder, Colorado and Oxford, England: Westview Press, 1991, esp. Chapter 3. [Focused on the Qing dynasty]

D. Modern China (1912–Present)

Farquhar, Judith. "'Medicine and the Changes are One': An Essay on Divination Healing with Commentary." Chinese Science 13 (1996), 107–134.

Liu, Zheng. "The Dilemma Facing Contemporary Research in the I-ching." Chinese Studies in Philosophy, 24.4 (Summer, 1993).

Smith, Richard J. "The Place of the Yijing (Classic of Changes) in World Culture: Some Historical and Contemporary Perspectives," Journal of Chinese Philosophy" (Winter, 1998).

See Tang (1987) under Section III above.


 

V. The Cultural Significance of the Yijing in China

Berglund, Lars. The Secret of Luo Shu: Numerology in Chinese Art and Architecture. Sodra Sandby, Sweden: Tryckbiten AB, 1990.

Bruun, Ole. Fengshui in China: Geomantic Divination between State Orthodoxy and Popular Religion. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 2002.

Chan, Wing-tsit, trans. Reflections on Things at Hand: The Neo-Confucian Anthology. New York: Columbia University Press, 1967. [This book, perhaps the most influential work in all of East Asia from the 14th century into the 20th, is full of wonderful examples showing how the Yijing was used to justify political and social roles and relationships]

Chu, Pingyi. "Ch'eng-Chu Orthodoxy, Evidential Studies and Correlative Cosmology: Chiang Yung and Western Astronomy." Philosophy and the History of Science, 4.2 (October, 1995). [Discusses the relationship between the Yijing and mathematics]

Fancourt, William. "The Yijing and the Development of Geomantic Divination." The Oracle: The Journal of Yijing Studies 2.9 (August 1999), 20–27.

Field, Stephen L. "The Numerology of Nine Star Fengshui: A Hetu, Luoshu Resolution of the Mystery of Directional Auspice." Journal of Chinese Religions 27 (1999), 13–33.

Field, Stephen L. "Hexagram Landscapes in Six Dynasties Poetry." Tamkang Review. 28.4 (Summer 1998), 117–141.

Ho, Peng Yoke. "The System of the Book of Changes and Chinese Science," Japanese Studies in the History of Science, 11 (1972).

Lai, Whalen. "The I Ching and the Formation of the Hua-Yen Philosophy." Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 7.3 (September, 1980), 245–258.

Lewis, Mark Edward. Writing and Authority in Early China. Albany: State University Press of New York, 1999, esp. Chapter 6. [An excellent analysis of the role of the Yijing in the development of Chinese discourse]

Moore, Steve. The Trigrams of Han: Inner Structures of the I Ching. Chatham, Kent: Acquarian Press, 1989. [Chapter 9 analyses the relationship between the eight trigrams and Zhuge Liang (aka Chu-ko Liang)'s famous "Eight Formations" (bazhen).]

Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956–present (multiple vols.). [A treasure trove of information on the relationship of the Yijing to Chinese science and technology]

See Nylan (1994) in Section IV.B above.

Plaks, Andrew. Archetype and Alegory in the Dream of the Red Chamber. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976. [Much infomation on the relationship of the Changes to China's greatest novel]

Robinet, Isabelle. "Les marches cosmiques et les carres magique dans le Taoism. Journal of Chinese Religions 23 (1995): 81–94.

Shih, Vincent Yu-chung, trans. The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons: A Study of Thought and Pattern in Chinese Literature. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1983. [This translation of a famous Chinese guide to composition, which cites the Yijing abundantly as authority]

Smith, Richard J. "The Place of the Yijing (Classic of Changes) in World Culture: Some Historical and Contemporary Perspectives," Journal of Chinese Philosophy" (Winter, 1998).

Smith, Richard J. Fortune-tellers and Philosophers: Divination in Traditional Chinese Society. Boulder, Colorado and Oxford, England: Westview Press, 1991, esp. Chapter 3. [Gives many examples of the influence of the Yijing on Chinese culture]

Sze, Mai-mai. The Way of Chinese Painting. New York: Vintage Books 1959. This translation of a major work on Chinese painting cites the Yijing as authority on several occasions]

Yang, Li. Book of Changes and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Beijing: Beijing Science and Technology Press, 1998.


 

VI. The Transmission of the Yijing

A. Overviews

Rutt, Richard Rutt, trans. The Book of Changes (Zhouyi). Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 1996. Chapter 4.

Shchutskii, Iulian. Researches on the I Ching. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979, Part I, Chapters 1 and 2.

Smith, Richard J. "The Yijing (Classic of Changes) in Global Perspective: Some Reflections," Guoji Yijing xuehui [International Yijing Association], ed., Erlingling'er nian shijie Yijing dahui lunwen ji (Collected Papers of the 2002 Classic of Changes World Conference), Zhongli, Taiwan, 2002, 754–791.

B. To Korea

Choi, Min-hong. A Modern History of Korean Philosophy. Seoul: Seong Moon Sa, 1980.

Chung, David. Syncretism: The Religious Context of Christian Beginnings in Korea. Albany: State University Press of New York, 2001.

Chung, Edward Y. J. The Korean Neo-Confucianism of Yi T'oegye and Yi Yulgok: A Reappraisal of the "Four-Seven Thesis" and Its Practical Implications for Self-Cultivation. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995. [Yi T'oegye was greatly influenced by the Changes, as this book and several of the works about him (listed below) reveal]

de Bary, Wm. Theodore, and JaHyun Kim Haboush, eds. The Rise of Neo-Confucianism in Korea. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.

Fendos, Paul G., Jr. "Book of Changes Studies in Korea." Asian Studies Review 23:1 (March 1999), 49–68.

Kalton, Michael C., trans. The Ten Diagrams on Sage Learning by Yi T'oegye. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

Kalton, Michael C. et al., trans. The Forty-Seven Debate: An Annotated Translation of the Most Famous Controversy in Korean Neo-Confucian Thought. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994.

Lee, Jung Young. "The Book of Change and Korean Thought." In Earl Phillips and Eui-Young Yu, eds. Religions in Korea: Beliefs and Cultural Values. Los Angeles: Center for Korean-American and Korean Studies, California State University, Los Angeles, 1982.

Lee, Jung Young. "The Origin and Significance of the Chongyok or Book of Correct Change." Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 9 (1982), 211–241. [A significant work inspired by the Yijing]

Ng, Benjamin Wai-ming. "The I Ching in Late Choson Thought," Korean Studies 24 (2000).

Palais, James. Confucian Statecraft and Korean Institutions: Yu Hyongwon and the Late Choson Dynasty. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1996.

Phelan, Timothy S. "Chu Hsi's I-hsueh Ch'i-meng and the Neo-Confucianism of Yi T'oegye." Korea Journal 18:9 (September, 1978): 12–17.

Ro, Young-chan. The Korean Neo-Confucianism of Yi Yulgok. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.

Yun, Sasoon. Critical Issues in Neo-Confucian Thought: The Philosophy of Yi T'oegye. Seoul: Korea University Press, 1990. Translated by Michael Kalton.

C. To Japan

Ng, Benjamin Wai-ming. The I Ching in Tokugawa Thought and Culture. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2000.

Ng, Benjamin Wai-ming. "The I Ching in Tokugawa Medical Thought." East Asian Library Journal, 1 (Spring, 1998).

Ng, Benjamin Wai-ming. "The Yijing in Buddhist-Confucian Relations in Tokugawa Japan." Studies in Central and East Asian Religions, 10 (1998).

Ng, Benjamin Wai-ming. "The I Ching in Shinto Thought of Tokugawa Japan." Philosophy East and West, 48.4 (October, 1998).

Ng, Benjamin Wai-ming. "The I Ching in the Adaptation of Western Science in Tokugawa Japan." Chinese Science, 15 (1998).

Ng, Benjamin Wai-ming. "Study and the Uses of the I Ching in Tokugawa Japan." Sino-Japanese Studies, 9.2 (April, 1997), 24–44.

Ng, Benjamin Wai-ming. "The History of the I Ching in Medieval Japan." Journal of Asian History, 31.1 (July, 1997), 25–46.

Ng, Benjamin Wai-ming. "The I Ching in Ancient Japan." Asian Culture Quarterly, 26.2 (Summer, 1996), 73–76.

Ng, Benjamin Wai-ming. "The I Ching in the Military Thought of Tokugawa Japan." Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 5.1 (April, 1996), 11–29.

D. To Vietnam

Cadiere, Leopold. Religious Beliefs and Practices of the Vietnamese. Clayton, Australia: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies Working Papers, 1989. Translated by Ian W. Mabbett. [A short summary of the three-volume work below]

Cadiere, Leopold M. Croyances et pratiques religieuses des Vietnamiens. Saigon: l'Ecole Française d'Extreme-Orient, 1944–1958. Three vols. Reissued in Paris, 1992.

Cadiere, Leopold M. "Croyances et pratiques réligieuses des Annamites dans les environs de Hué." Bulletin de l'Ecole Française d'Extreme-Orient, 19.2: 1–115.

Ng, Benjamin Wai-ming. "Yijing Scholarship in Late-Nguyen Vietnam: A Study of Le Van Ngu’s Chu Dich Cuu Nguyen (An Investigation of the Origins of the Yijing, 1916)." [Forthcoming; I'm not sure of the publisher or the publication date' perhaps the Journal of Chinese Philosophy.]

Tran, Nghia and François Gros, eds. Catalogue des livres en Han nom (bilingual edition, with more extensive commentaries in Vietnamese than in French; Vietnamese title: Di san Han nom Viet Nam: thu muc de yeu). Hanoi: Khoa hoc xa hoi, 1993.

Tran My Van. A Vietnamese Scholar in Anguish: Nguyen Khuyen and the Decline of the Confucian Order, 1884–1909. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 1991.

Unger, Ann Helen and Walter Unger. Pagodas, Gods and Spirits of Vietnam. London: Thames and Hudson, 1997. Translated by from the German by Lorna Dale.

E. To Tibet

Cornu, Phillipe. Tibetan Astrology. Boston and London: Shambala, 1997. Translated from the French by Hamish Gregor.

Dickinson, Gary and Steve Moore. "Trigrams and Tortoises: Sino-Tibetan Divination." Oracle (special issue), 1.5 (Summer, 1997), 1–48.

Sangye Gyatso. Tibetan Elemental Divination Paintings: Illuminated Manuscripts from The White Beryl of Sangs-rgyas rGya-mtsho with the Moonbeams Treatise of Lo-chen Dharmasri. London: John Eskenazi in association with Sam Fogg, 2001. Commentary and translation by Gyurme Dorje.

F. To the West

1. Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

Aiton, E. J. "Gorai Kinzô’s Study of Leibniz and the I ching Hexagrams." Annals of Science 38 (1981): 71–92.

Collani, Claudia von. "The First Meeting of the Yijing and the West." Forthcoming in Monumenta Serica.

Collani, Claudia von. "Figurism." In Nicholas Standaert, ed. Handbook of Christianity in China. Volume 1: 635–1800. Leiden, Boston and Koln: Brill, 2001.

Collani, Claudia von. "Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and the China Mission of the Jesuits," in Wenchao Li and Hans Poser, eds. Das Neueste uber China: G. W. Leibnizens Novissima Sinica von 1697. Studia Leibnitiana Supplementa, vol. 33. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 2000.

Collani, Claudia von. P. Joachim Bouvet S.J. Sein Leben und sein werk. Nettetal: Steyler Verlag, 1985.

Collani, Claudia von. "Chinese Figurism in the Eyes of European Contemporaries." China Mission Studies (1550–1800) Bulletin, 4 (1982), 12–23.

Collani, Claudia von. Die Figuristen in der Chinamission. Frankfort and Bern: Peter Lang, 1981.

Cook, Daniel J. and Henry Rosemont, Jr. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Writings on China. Chicago: Open Court, 1994.

Fancourt, William. "Figurism." The Oracle: The Journal of Yijing Studies, 3 (Spring 1996), 28–34.

Gatty, Janette. "Les rechereches de Joachim Bouvet (1656–1730)." In Colloque international de sinologie (1st: 1974: Chantilly, France). La mission française de Pékin aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles: actes du Colloque international de sinologie, Centre de recherches interdisciplinaire de Chantilly, 20–22 septembre 1974, Paris: Belles Lettres, 1976, 141–162.

Goodman, Howard L. and Anthony Grafton. "Ricci, the Chinese, and the Toolkits of Textualists." Asia Major, 3.2 (1990).

Heyndrickx, Jerome, ed. Philippe Couplet, S.J. (16231693): The Man Who Brought China to Europe. Nettetal: Steyler Verlag, 1990.

Javary, Genevieve. "Le Pere Bouvet a-t-il retrouvé Pythagore en Chine." Hexagrammes, 6 (1991), 113–122.

Lackner, Michael. "Jesuit Figurism" in Thomas H.C. Lee, ed. China and Europe: Images and Influences in Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1991.

Landry-Deron, Isabelle. Les leçons des sciences occidentales de l'empereur de Chinese Kangxi (16621722): Texte des Journals des Péres Bouvet et Gerbillion. Paris: E.H.E.S.S., 1995.

Lundbaek, Knud. Joseph de Prémare (1666-1736), S.J.: Chinese Philology and Figurism. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press, 1991.

Moore, Steve. "The Yijing in Brazil." The Oracle: The Journal of Yijing Studies 2.9 (August 1999): 48–59.

Moore, Steve. "The Yijing in Brazil: Part 2: Consultants and Candomblé." The Oracle: The Journal of Yijing Studies 2.8 (February 1999): 47–57.

Rule, Paul. K'ung-tzu or Confucius?: The Jesuit Interpretation of Confucianism. Sydney and London: Allen and Unwin, 1987.

Rutt, Richard Rutt, trans. The Book of Changes (Zhouyi). Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 1996, Chapter 4.

Secret, François. "Quand la Kabbale expliquait le 'Yi king,' ou un aspect oublié du figuratisme du P. Joachim Bouvet." Revue de l’histoire des religions 195 (1979), 35-53.

Shchutskii, Iulian. Researches on the I Ching. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979, Chapter 1.

Smith, Richard J. "The Jesuits and Evidential Research in Late Imperial China: Some Reflections," Ex/Change (February 2002). Online at http://www.cityu.edu.hk/cityu/about/exchange.htm.

Sun, Xiaoli, "A Wrong Statement about Leibniz and His Interpretation of Chinese I Ching Figure," Historia scientiarum 8 (1999), 239–247.

Witek, John. Controversial Ideas in China and Europe: A Biography of Jean-François Foucquet S.J. (1665–1741). Rome: Institutum Historicum S.I., 1982.

2. Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

Capra, Fritjof. The Tao of Physics: An Exploration of the Parallels Between Modern Physics and Eastern Mysticism. Boston: Shambala, 1991. Third edition, expanded.

Clark, J. J. Jung and Eastern Thought: A Dialogue with the Orient. London and new York: Routledge, 1994.

Clark, J. J., ed. C.G. Jung on the East. London and New York: Routledge, 1995.

Crowley, Aleister, Foundation webpage. http://www.thelemicgoldendawn.org/acf/

Cornelius, J. Edward and Marlene, eds. "Yi King: A Beastly Book of Changes." Red Flame: A Thelemic Research Journal, 5 (1998), 1–234.

Lackner, Michael. "Richard Wilhelm: A 'Sinicized' German Translator," in Viviane Alleton and Michael Lackner, eds. De l'Un au Multiple. La traduction du chinois dans les langues européennes. Paris: Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 1998.

LaCouperie, Terrien de, "The Oldest Book of the Chinese (the Yh-King) and Its Authors." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, new series, 14 (1882), 781–815 and new series, 15 (1883), 237–289.

MacGillivray, D. "A New Interpretation of the Book of Changes." The Chinese Recorder, 47 (May, 1918).

Rutt, Richard Rutt, trans. The Book of Changes (Zhouyi). Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 1996, Chapter 4.

Shchutskii, Iulian. Researches on the I Ching. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979, Chapter 1.


 

VII. Comparative Studies Involving the Yijing

Boyle, Veolita Parke. The Fundamental Principles of Yi-King, Tao, The Cabbalas of Egypt and The Hebrews. Chicago: Occult Publishing Company, 1929. 

Cheng, Chung-ying, "Confucius, Heidegger, and the Philosophy of the I Ching." Philosophy East and West, 37.1 (January, 1987), 51–70.

Karcher, Stephen. "Journey to the West." The Oracle: The Journal of Yijing Studies 2.9 (August 1999), 3–19.

Lee, Jung Young. Embracing Change: Postmodern Interpretations of the I Ching from a Christian Perspective. Scranton: University of Scranton Press, 1994.

Lee, Jung Young. Patterns of Inner Process; The Rediscovery of Jesus Teachings in the I Ching and the Writings of Preston Harold. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press, 1976.

Lee, Jung Young. The I Ching and Modern Man: Essays on Metaphysical Implications of Change. Secaucus, N. J.: University Books, Inc. 1975.

Lee, Jung Young. Death and Beyond in the Eastern Perspective. A Study Based on the Bardo Thodol and the I Ching. New York, NY: Interfaith Books, 1974.

Liang, Tao-wei. "A Comparative Study of the I Ching and Buddhism." Transactions of the International Conference of Orientalists in Japan, 15 (1970), 111–14.

Lik, Kuen Tong. "The Concept of Time in Whitehead and the I Ching." Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 1.3-4 (June-September, 1974), 373–93.

Lik, Kuen Tong. "Whitehead and Chinese Philosophy: From the Vantage Point of the I Ching." Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 6.3 (September, 1979), 297–322.

McCaffree, Joseph E. Bible and I Ching Relationships. Hong Kong and Seattle: South Sky Book Co, 1982.

Ng, Benjamin Wai-ming. "I Ching Scholarship in Ch'ing China: A Historical and Comparative Study," Chinese Culture, 37.1 (March, 1996), 57–68.

Ong, Hean-Tatt. The Chinese Pakua. Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications, 1991.

Ryan, James A. "Leibniz's Binary System and Shao Yong's Yijing." Philosophy East and West, 46.1 (January, 1996), 59–90.

Schoenbohm, Susan. "Heidegger and Hexagram 2." Journal of Chinese Philosophy 30.1 (March 2003): 61–79.

Smith, Richard J. "The Place of the Yijing (Classic of Changes) in World Culture: Some Historical and Contemporary Perspectives," Journal of Chinese Philosophy (Winter, 1998).

Swetz, Frank J. Legacy of the Luoshu: The 4,000 Year Search for the Meaning of the Magic Square of Order Three. Chicago and La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, 2002.

Tong, Paul K. K. "A Cross-Cultural Study of the I Ching." Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 3.1 (December, 1975), 73–84.


 

VIII. Miscellaneous Works on the Yijing (a very mixed bag; some of these "translations, for example, are clearly not based directly on any Chinese version of the Changes)

Chang, Wonsuk. "Time and Creativity in the 'Yijing'." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hawaii, 1999. Available from UMI Dissertation Services/ProQuest.

*Choain, Jean. Introduction au Yi-King. Monaco: Editions du Rocher, 1991.

Chung, Chang-Soo. The I Ching on Man and Society: An Exploration into its Theoretical Implications in Social Sciences. Lanham, New York and Oxford: University Press of America, 2000.

Ciesinski, Ted. "A Heuristic Enquiry into the I Ching Consultation Process." Ph.D. dissertation, California Institute of Integral Studies, 1996. Available from UMI Dissertation Services/ProQuest.

*Collins, Roy. The Fu Hsi I Ching: The Early Heaven Sequence. New York and London: University Press of America, 1993.

Davis, Scott. "Operating the Yijing Apparatus: A Compositional Analysis. The Oracle: The Journal of Yijing Studies, 2.7 (Summer, 1998).

*Eason, Cassandra. I Ching Divination for Today's Woman. Sonoma, California: Foulsham and Co., 1994. [Interesting for the "liberties" taken with the text]

de Fancourt, William (G.W. Dickinson). Warp and Weft: In Search of the I-Ching. Freshfields, Chieveley, Berks (England): Capall Bann Publishing, 1997. [A general overview of the evolution and spread of the Changes]

Javary, Cyrille. Les Rouages du Yi Jing. Paris: Javary, Phillipe Picquier, 2001.

Javary, Genevieve. "Traduction du conflit et conflits de traduction." Hexagrammes, 6 (1991), 64–112.

*Karcher, Stephen, trans. How to Use The I Ching. Rockport, Mass: Element, 1997.

*Karcher, Stephen, trans. The Elements of The I Ching. Rockport, Mass: Element, 1995.

Lee, Jung Young. The Principles of Change: Understanding the I Ching. New Hyde Park, NY: University Books, 1971.

MacClure, Terrence. Golf Ching: Golf Guidance and Wisdom from the I Ching. Kansas City: Andrews McMeel, 1997. [Interesting for the "liberties" taken with the text]

*McClatchie, Canon, trans. A Translation of the Classic of Change with Notes and Appendix. Shanghai: American Presbyterian Press, 1876.

McKenna, Terrence and Dennis McKenna. The Invisible Landscape: Mind, Hallucinogens and the I Ching. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers, 1993.

McKenna, Stephen and Victor Mair. "A Reordering of the Hexagrams of the I Ching." Philosophy East and West, 29.4 (October, 1979), 421–41.

Moore, Steve. The Trigrams of Han: Inner Structures of the I Ching. Chatham, Kent: Acquarian Press, 1989.

Mou, Bo. "An Analysis of the Ideographic Nature and Structure of the Hexagram in Yijing: From the Perspective of Philosophy of Language." Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 25:3 (September, 1998), 305–320.

*Murphey, Joseph and Ken Irving. Secrets of the I Ching. Paramus, NJ: Reward Books, 2000.

Pailoux, Jacques. Le diamant chauve ou la tradition des evidences: Théorie générale de l'énergétique fondée sur le Yi King. Erde: Foundation Cornelius, 1976.

Pailoux, Jacques. Le diamant chauve ou la tradition des evidences: Mise a jour 2002. Erde: Foundation Cornelius, 2002.

Riegal, Jeffrey. "A Textual Note on the I Ching." Journal of the American Oriental Society, 103.3 (July–September, 1983), 601–605.

*Sadler, William. The I Ching of Management: An Age-Old Study for New Age Managers. Atlanta: Humanics Publishing Group, 1996.

*Schlumberger, Jean-Phillipe, trans. Yi king: Principes, pratique et interprétation. Paris: Editions Dangles, 1987.

Schoter, Andreas. "Boolean Algebra and the Yijing." Oracle: The Journal of Yijing Studies, 2.7 (Summer, 1998), 19–34.

*Secter, Mondo, trans. The I Ching Handbook: Decision-Making With and Without Divination. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 2002.

*Secter, Mondo, trans. I Ching Clarified: A Practical Guide. Boston: Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1993.

Sherrill, W. A. and W. K. Chu. An Anthology of I Ching. London, Henley and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983.

Siu, R. G. H. The Man of Many Qualities: A Legacy of the I Ching. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1968.

*Sterling, Marysol Gonzalez. I-Ching and Transpersonal Psychology. York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, 1995. [Interesting for the "liberties" taken with the text]

Sung, Z. D. The Symbols of Yi King or The Symbols of the Chinese Logic of Changes. New York: Paragon Book Reprint Corp., 1969. Originally published in Shanghai in 1934.

*Vinogradoff, Michel. Yi Jing: la marche du destin. Paris: Editions Dangles, 1995.

*Wei, Henry, trans. The Authentic I-Ching. North Hollywood, California: Newcastle Publishing Company, 1987.

*Wu Wei, trans. The I Ching: The Book of Changes and How to Use It. Los Angeles: Power Press, 1995.

Yan, Johnson. DNA and the I Ching. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1991. [Interesting for the "liberties" taken with the text]

*Yang, Zu-hui and Hiria Ottino. Le livre de la simplicité. Paris: éditions Trédaniel, 1998.

*Yu, Titus. "The 'Y Ching': An Etymological Perspective." Ph.D. dissertation, California Institute of Integral Studies, 1983. Available from UMI Dissertation Services/ProQuest.


 

IX. Some Other Relevant Works (focusing primarily on issues of textual transmission [including translation], textual authority, and comparative religious or philosophical traditions)

Batchelor, Stephen. The Awakening of the West: The Encounter of Buddhism and Western Culture. Berkeley, Parallax Press, 1994.

Baumann, Martin and Charles Prebish, eds. Westward Dharma: Buddhism beyond Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Bloom, Harold. Kabbalah and Criticism. New York: Continuum, 1983.

Bloom, Irene, and Joshua Fogel, eds. Meeting of Minds: Intellectual and Religious Interaction in East Asian Traditions of Thought. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.

Bodde, Derk. Chinese Thought, Society and Science. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1991.

Bourdieu, Pierre. Language and Symbolic Power. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1994. Translated from the French by Gino Raymond and Matthew Adamson.

Chemla, Karine, Donald Harper and Marc Kalinowski, eds. Divination et rationalité en Chine ancienne. (Vol. 21 of Extrême-Orient/Extrême-Occident: Cahiers de recherches comparatives), Saint-Denis: Presses Universitaires de Vincennes, 1999.

Cheng, Chung-ying. New Dimensions of Confucian and Neo-Confucian Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991.

Chow, Kai-wing, On-cho Ng and John B. Henderson, eds. Imagining Boundaries: Changing Confucian Doctrines, Texts and Hermeneutics. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999.

Clark, J. J. The Tao of the West: Western Transformations of Taoist Thought. London and New York: Routledge, 2000.

Clark, J. J., ed. C.G. Jung on the East. London and new York: Routledge, 1995.

Copleston, Frederick. Philosophies and Cultures. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Courtney, Charles, ed. East Wind: Daoist and Cosmological Implications of Christian Theology. Lanham, Maryland.: University Press of America, 1997.

Coward, Harold, ed., Experiencing Scripture in World Religions. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 2000.

Damrosh, David. What Is World Literature? Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2003.

De Woskin, Kenneth. Doctors, Diviners and Magicians of Ancient China. New York: Columbia University Press. 1983.

Dilworth, David. Philosophy in World Perspective: The Hermeneutics of the Major Themes. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.

Doniger, Wendy. The Implied Spider: Politics and Theology in Myth. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998).

Eberhard, Wolfram. A Dictionary of Chinese Symbols. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988.

Elman, Benjamin A. A Cultural History of Civil Examinations in Late Imperial China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

Elman, Benjamin A. Classicism, Politics, and Kinship: The Ch'ang-chou School of New Text Confucianism in Late Imperial China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Elman, Benjamin. From Philosophy to Philology. Intellectual and Social Aspects of Change in Late Imperial China (Harvard East Asian Monographs, 110). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1984.

Elman, Benjamin, John B. Duncan, and Herman Ooms, eds. Rethinking Confucianism: Past and Present in China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Los Angeles: UCLA Asian Pacific Monograph Series, 2002.

Elman, Benjamin and Alexander Woodside, eds. Education and Society in Late Imperial China 1600–1900. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Evans, Grant. "Between the Global and the Local There Are Regions, Culture Areas, and National States: A Review Article." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 33.1 (February, 2002), 147–162.

Fung, Yu-lan. A History of Chinese Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953. Two vols.

Gardner, Daniel K. "Confucian Commentary and Chinese Intellectual History." Journal of Asian Studies 57.2 (May 1998): 397–422.

Geertz, Clifford, "The Uses of Diversity," Michigan Quarterly Review, 25 (1986).

Graham, A. C. Disputers of the Tao: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China. La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, 1989.

Graham, A. C. Yin-Yang and the Nature of Correlative Thinking. Singapore: Institute of East Asian Philosophies, National University of Singapore, 1986.

Hall, David and Roger Ames. Anticipating China: Thinking Through the Narratives of Chinese and Western Culture. Albany: State University Press of New York, 1995.

Hall, David and Roger Ames. Thinking from the Han: Self, Truth and Transcendence in Chinese and Western Culture. Albany: State University Press of New York, 1998.

Henderson, John B. The Construction of Orthodoxy and Heresy: Neo-Confucian, Islamic, Jewish, and Early Christian Patterns. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998.

Henderson, John B. Scripture, Canon and Commentary: A Comparison of Confucian and Western Exegesis. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.

Henderson, John B. The Development and Decline of Chinese Cosmology. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984.

Jullien, François. The Propensity of Things: Toward a History of Efficacy in China. New York: Zone Books, 1995. Translated from the French by Janet Lloyd.

Jung Carl, ed. Man and His Symbols. New York: Laurel Books, 1968.

Larson, Gerald and Eliot Deutch, eds. Interpreting Across Boundaries: New Essays in Comparative Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.

Lydia Liu, Translingual Practice: Literature, National Culture, and Translated Modernity—China, 1900–1937. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995.

Liu, Lydia, ed. Tokens of Exchange: The Problem of Translation in Global Circulations. Durham, NC : Duke University Press, 1999.

Loewe, Michael and Carmen Blacker, eds. Oracles and Divination. Boulder: Shambala, 1981.

Mullins, Mark R. Christianity Made in Japan: A Study of Indigenous Movements. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1998.

Nakamura, Hajime. A Comparative History of Ideas. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1986.

Neuser, Jacob, ed., Sacred Texts and Authority. Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 1998.

Ngo, Van Xuyet. Divination, magie et politique dans la Chine ancienne. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1976.

O'Flaherty, Wendy Doniger. Other People's Myths: The Cave of Echoes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995; reprint.

Puett, Michael. To Become a God: Cosmology, Sacrifice, and Self-Divinization in Early China. Cambridge, Mass. and London: Harvard University Press, 2002

Puett, Michael. The Ambivalence of Creation: Debates Concerning Innovation and Artifice in Early China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001.

Saussy, Haun. Great Walls of Discourse and Other Adventures in Cultural China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001. [Insightful and provocative essays dealing with problems of translation and interpretation]

Scharfstein, Ben-Ami, et al., Philosophy East/Philosophy West. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.

Scharfstein, Ben-Ami. A Comparative History of World Philosophy: From the Upanishads to Kant. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998.

Sivin, Nathan. Medicine, Philosophy and Religion in Ancient China: Researches and Reflections. Brookfield, Vermont: Variorum (Ashgate Publishing), 1995.

Smart, Ninian and Richard Hecht, eds., Sacred Texts of the World: A Universal Anthology. New York: Crossroad, 1982.

Smith, Kidder. "Sima Tan and the Invention of Daoism, "Legalism," et cetera," Journal of Asian Studies 62.1 (February 2003): 129–156.

Smith, Richard J. "Some Strategies for the Classroom and Beyond" in Richard Bowring and Noel Pinnington, eds., Teaching About Japan in Japan (Fukuoka, Japan: Kyushu University Press, 2001), pp. 1–32.

Smith, Richard J. China's Cultural Heritage: The Qing Dynasty, 1644–1912. Boulder, San Francisco and Oxford, England, Westview Press, 1994.

Smith, Richard J. "China and the West: Some Comparative Possibilities," Liberal Education, 73.4 (September/October, 1987).

Smith, Richard J. "All Under Heaven: The West and 'The Rest' in Humanistic Studies," Interpreting the Humanities 1986 (The Woodrow Wilson Foundation, Princeton, 1986), pp. 113–126.

Smith, Richard J. and D. Y. Y. Kwok, eds. Cosmology, Ontology and Human Efficacy: Essays in Chinese Thought. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993.

Symonds, John, and Kenneth Grant, eds. The Confessions of Aleister Crowley: An Autobiography. New York: Hill and Wang, 1969.

Tsai, Yen-zen. "Ching and Chuan: Towards Defining the Confucian Scriptures in Han China (206 B.C.E.–220 C.E.)." Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1993. Available from UMI Dissertation Services/ProQuest.

Yates, Robin, trans. Five Lost Classics: Tao, Huanglao, and Yin-Yang in Han China, New York: Ballentine Books, 1997.

Zhang, Longxi. Mighty Opposites: From Dichotomies to Differences in the Comparative Study of China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999.

Zhang, Longxi. The Tao and the Logos: Literary Hermeneutics, East and West. Durham, Duke University Press, 1992.


X. A Note on the Net

Greg Whincup's "The I Ching on the Net (Zhouyi dianlin)" provides a good introduction to the vast amount of Yijing-related material on the world-wide web. See http://www.pacificcoast.net/~wh/Index.html. This site distinguishes between "conventional" and "unconventional" approaches to the Changes.